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白宫贸易政策情况说明

白宫新闻秘书办公室华盛顿哥伦比亚特区(Washington, D.C.)2018年5月29日,唐纳德 · 特朗普(DONALD J. TRUMP)总统应对中国不公平的贸易政策。

“从今以后,我们期待贸易关系是公平而且互惠的。”——唐纳德 · 特朗普总统

多年来的不公平贸易行为:中国一贯以有损于公平及互惠贸易的做法利用美国经济获益。

多年来,中国推行了一些产业政策以及不公平的贸易做法——其中包括倾销、歧视性非关税壁垒、强制性技术转让、产能过剩以及产业补贴——以支持中国公司,并使很多美国公司不可能在一个公平的环境下进行竞争。
中国的产业政策,例如其“中国制造2025”计划,有损于美国及世界各地的公司企业。
中国对美国出口产品征收的关税远远高于美国对中国征收的关税。
o中国的平均关税率比美国的平均关税率高将近3倍。

o一些特定产品甚至更不平衡,例如,美国对中国汽车征收2.5%的关税,而目前中国对来自美国的汽车仍保持25%的关税。

中国禁止从美国进口家禽等农产品,切断了美国农牧民让他们的产品进入一个主要市场的途径。
中国对销往美国市场的一系列产品进行倾销及不公平地补贴,损害了美国的国内产业。
o仅在2018年,特朗普政府已发现涉及13种不同产品的倾销或不公平补贴行为,其中包括钢圈、冷拔机械管、工具箱柜、锻钢配件、铝箔、橡皮筋、铸铁下水管和连接件以及大口径焊管。

2018年1月,特朗普政府认定中国的钢和铝的过度生产,及其对全球市场产生的影响,是一种威胁损害美国国家安全的因素。
美国与中国的商品贸易多年来一直存在逆差,仅2017年一年的逆差就达3,750亿美元。
对美国的创新和就业造成损害:中国极力谋求获得美国公司的技术,有损于美国的发明创造。

中国对知识财产的窃取每年给美国发明创造者造成亿万美元损失,87%在进入美国时被截获的仿造产品来自中国。
美国贸易代表(United States Trade Representative)展开的《301条款》(Section 301)调查发现了中国大力推行的四项技术政策,威胁着美国4,400万个技术就业岗位:
o   强迫性技术转让;

o   使许可执照低于经济价值;

o   中国国家指导的带有战略目的的对美国敏感技术的收购;

o   网上公然窃取。

中国通过对外国企业所有权的限制、行政审查和颁发许可程序,强迫美国公司或向美国公司施加压力进行技术转让。
o   中国要求进入其新能源车(New Energy Vehicles)市场的外国公司转让核心技术和公开有关开发及制造技术。

o   中国对进入中国的外国公司取得知识产权和技术执照实施契约限制,但是对在两个中国企业之间这样做不实施同样限制。

中国指示和协助在美国的投资和对美国公司的兼并收购,以带来大规模技术转让。
中国从事和支持对美国电脑网络的网际侵入,旨在得到重要商业信息,使中国公司得以仿造产品。
抵制中国的不公平贸易行为:特朗普总统采取了早应采取的行动,以最终解决问题的根源,即伤害美国工人和我国创新行业的中国的不公平贸易做法。

2018年1月,特朗普总统宣布,决定为因洗衣机和太阳能产品进口激增而受到伤害的美国制造商提供保护。
o   这是16年来第一运用《1974年贸易法第201条款》(Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974)实施关税。

o   这些行动是针对中国和其他国家的伤害性贸易做法——包括企图躲避合法实施的反倾销和反补贴税——作出的反应。

o    在此项决定后,惠而浦(Whirlpool)在俄亥俄州(Ohio)宣布了200个新工作机会。

美国贸易代表和商务部(Department of Commerce)正在共同努力,捍卫美国在反倾销调查中继续将中国作为非市场经济体对待的权利,直至中国作出它在加入世界贸易组织(World Trade Organization)时承诺的改革。
特朗普总统的政府成功进行了针对不公平贸易的世贸组织诉讼,维护了我们执行美国贸易法的权利。
o   2018年2月,美国贸易代表赢得了在世贸组织提出的针对中国对美国鸡禽出口实施的不公平的反倾销和反补贴税的申诉,中国宣布终止上述征税。

保护美国发明创造:特朗普总统作出努力,保护美国知识财产和专有技术不遭盗窃和其他威胁。

2017年8月,美国政府针对中国有关强迫性技术转让、不公平许可执照做法以及知识财产政策启动了《301条款》调查。
在2018年3月美国贸易代表完成《301条款》报告后,总统指示有关部门探讨多种行动措施,保护国内技术和知识财产。
在特朗普总统领导下:
o   美国将对来自中国的包含重要工业技术的500亿美元产品征收25%关税,其中包括与“2025中国制造”计划相关的产品。有关这些进口产品的最后名单将在2018年6月15日前公布。

o   美国贸易代表将继续解决于3月份在世贸组织启动的针对中国歧视性技术许可执照规定的纠纷。

o   美国将实施具体投资限制,并增加对向中国个人和实体进行与兼并收购重要工业技术有关的出口的控制。限制和控制清单将不迟于2018年6月30日公布。

THE WHITE HOUSE

Office of the Press Secretary

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

MAY 29, 2018

PRESIDENT DONALD J. TRUMP IS CONFRONTING CHINA’S UNFAIR TRADE POLICIES

“From now on, we expect trading relationships to be fair and to be reciprocal.” – President Donald J. Trump

YEARS OF UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES: China has consistently taken advantage of the American economy with practices that undermine fair and reciprocal trade.

For many years, China has pursued industrial policies and unfair trade practices—including dumping, discriminatory non-tariff barriers, forced technology transfer, over capacity, and industrial subsidies—that champion Chinese firms and make it impossible for many United States firms to compete on a level playing field.
China’s industrial policies, such as its “Made in China 2025” plan, harm companies in the United States and around the world.
China imposes much higher tariffs on United States exports than the United States imposes on China.
o   China’s average tariff rate is nearly three times higher than the average United States rate.

o   Certain products are even more imbalanced, for instance the United States charges a 2.5 percent tariff on Chinese cars, while China currently maintains a 25 percent tariff on cars from the United States.

China has banned imports of United States agricultural products such as poultry, cutting off America’s ranchers and farmers from a major market for their goods.
China has dumped and unfairly subsidized a range of goods for the United States market, undermining America’s domestic industry.
o   In 2018 alone, the Trump Administration has found dumping or unfair subsidies on 13 different products, including steel wheels, cold-drawn mechanical tubing, tool chests and cabinets, forged steel fittings, aluminum foil, rubber bands, cast iron soil pipe and fittings, and large diameter welded pipe.

In January 2018, the Trump Administration found that China’s overproduction of steel and aluminum, and the resulting impact on global markets, is a circumstance that threatens to impair America’s national security.
The United States has run a trade in goods deficit with China for years, including a $375 billion deficit in 2017 alone.
UNDERMINING AMERICAN INNOVATION AND JOBS: China has aggressively sought to obtain technology from American companies and undermine American innovation and creativity.

The cost of China’s intellectual property theft costs United States innovators billions of dollars a year, and China accounts for 87 percent of counterfeit goods seized coming into the United States.
United States Trade Representative’s (USTR) Section 301 investigation identified four of China’s aggressive technology policies that put 44 million American technology jobs at risk:
o   Forced technology transfer;

o   Requiring licensing at less than economic value;

o   Chinese state-directed acquisition of sensitive United States technology for strategic purposes; and

o   Outright cyber theft.

China uses foreign ownership restrictions, administrative review, and licensing processes to force or pressure technology transfers from American companies.
o   China requires foreign companies that access their New Energy Vehicles market to transfer core technologies and disclose development and manufacturing technology.

o   China imposes contractual restrictions on the licensing of intellectual property and technology by foreign firms into China, but does not put the same restrictions on contracts between two Chinese enterprises.

China directs and facilitates investments in and acquisitions of United States companies to generate large-scale technology transfer.
China conducts and supports cyber intrusions into United States computer networks to gain access to valuable business information so Chinese companies can copy products.
STANDING UP TO CHINA’S UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES: President Trump has taken long overdue action to finally address the source of the problem, China’s unfair trade practices that hurt America’s workers and our innovative industries.

In January 2018, the President announced his decision to provide safeguard relief to United States manufacturers injured by surging imports of washing machines and solar products.
o   This was the first use of Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974 to impose tariffs in 16 years.

o   These actions responded to injurious trade practices by China and other countries, including attempts to avoid legally imposed antidumping and countervailing duties.

o   Following the decision, Whirlpool announced 200 new jobs in Ohio.

USTR and the Department of Commerce are working together to defend the right of the United States to continue treating China as a non-market economy in antidumping investigations until China makes the reforms it agreed to when it joined the World Trade Organization (WTO).
President Trump’s Administration has successfully litigated WTO disputes targeting unfair trade practices and upholding our right to enforce United States trade laws.
o   In February 2018, USTR won a WTO compliance challenge against China’s unfair antidumping and countervailing duties on United States poultry exports and China announced the termination of those duties.

PROTECTING AMERICAN INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY: President Trump has worked to defend America’s intellectual property and proprietary technology from theft and other threats.

In August 2017, the Administration initiated a Section 301 investigation into China’s practices related to forced technology transfer, unfair licensing, and intellectual property policies.
After USTR completed its Section 301 report in March 2018, the President directed the agencies to explore numerous actions to protect domestic technology and intellectual property.
Under President Trump’s leadership:
o   The United States will impose a 25 percent tariff on $50 billion of goods imported from China containing industrially significant technology, including those related to the “Made in China 2025” program.  The final list of covered imports will be announced by June 15, 2018.

o   USTR will continue WTO dispute settlement against China originally initiated in March to address China’s discriminatory technology licensing requirements.

o   The United States will implement specific investment restrictions and enhanced export controls for Chinese persons and entities related to the acquisition of industrially significant technology. The list of restrictions and controls will be announced by June 30, 2018.

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